1 nostics as well as further management of the urethral abnormalities.
2 Accordingly, we studied urethral afferent neuronal somata in streptozotocin-indu
3 Thus, unlike bladder afferent neurons, urethral afferent neurons may be hyperexcitable well int
4 ations in electrophysiological properties of urethral afferent neurons may therefore contribute to vo
5 se approximately 70% of bladder and proximal urethral afferent neurons that send axons through the pe
6 injected into the proximal urethra to label urethral afferent neurons.
7 otassium currents was a prominent feature of urethral afferent neuropathy in DM, acting to increase n
8 ults describe the properties and function of urethral afferents that are necessary to understand how
9 In group 2 (n = 5), urethral and bladder protection was provided by insertin
10 , there was no difference among results from urethral and meatal swabs.
11 c US allowed visualization and monitoring of urethral and NVB blood flow during the ablation.
12 These findings challenge the fecal-urethral and prevalence hypotheses for FUTI pathogenesis
13 n males was 6.6%, with no difference between urethral and urine T. vaginalis detection (P = 0.53).
14 rtery, presumed circle area ratio, prostatic urethral angle, intraprostatic protrusion, and detrusor
15 have a lower risk of infection, erosion, and urethral atrophy.
16 Urethral biopsies showed that the engineered grafts had
17 Urethral brush cells express bitter and umami taste rece
18 The use of urethral bulking and oral medicines for stress incontine
19 copic studies showed the maintenance of wide urethral calibres without strictures.
20 nd that they have a critical function during urethral canalization and fusion.
21 after which we collected urine by means of a urethral catheter for culture (catheter urine).
22 t noninfectious complications resulting from urethral catheter use.
23 3-50 mL were instilled in the bladder via a urethral catheter.
24 However, urethral catheterization and contrast instillation is st
25 ch as venipuncture, intravenous cannulation, urethral catheterization, and lumbar puncture has become
26 ding those who suffered mucosal injuries via urethral catheterization, rarely showed evidence of neut
27 tants identified as defective in blockage of urethral catheters had disruptions in genes involved in
28 extensive crystalline biofilms on indwelling urethral catheters that block urine flow and lead to ser
29 ilis forms extensive crystalline biofilms on urethral catheters that occlude urine flow and frequentl
30 NAATs were performed on FCU, urethral, cervical, self- and clinician-collected VS.
31 PEA transferase A (lptA) mutant in the human urethral-challenge and murine lower genital tract infect
32 A minority (15%) also had urethral chlamydia coinfection.
33 are coexpressed at the midline in the fusing urethral/cloacal endoderm and underlying lateral mesoder
34 (3) urethral pressure profilometry, to gauge urethral closing pressures and pressure transmission rat
35 t rest constrict the urethral lumen and keep urethral closure pressure higher than bladder pressure.
36 increases in abdominal pressure to maintain urethral closure pressures above rapidly increasing blad
37 ncy continues to be mainly identified by low urethral closure pressures or low abdominal leak point p
38 ncision or partial excision of the sling and urethral closure suffices.
39 r urethroplasty and to address the posterior urethral complications of the treatment of prostate canc
40 fixed sling that achieves a broader area of urethral compression by combining a transobturator and s
41 rge collateral vein as well as prostatic and urethral congestion leading to intermittent urinary hesi
42 ateral vein and it may lead to prostatic and urethral congestion.
43 een used with increasing frequency to regain urethral continuity.
44 ered as a management option to restore early urethral continuity.
45 ge between groups with and the group without urethral cooling (P = .002), while intraarterial cooling
46 There was highly significant difference in urethral damage between groups with and the group withou
47 linization disorders such as cryptorchidism, urethral defects and hypospadias.
48 Five boys who had urethral defects were included in the study.
49 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urethral dilatation and direct visual internal urethroto
50 erature to identify contemporary practice of urethral dilatation and DVIU and the long-term outcome o
51 od January 2010 to December 2011 showed that urethral dilatation and DVIU remain frequently used trea
52 Urethral dilatation and DVIU remain widely used in ureth
53 lts of minimally invasive procedures such as urethral dilation and transurethral incision of the blad
54 bladder neck contractures are responsive to urethral dilation or cold knife direct visual internal u
55 sive method of measuring urine flow rate and urethral dilation.
56 Most had urethral discharge (91%), reported oral sex with a femal
57 eriod 2007-2009 with NGU (defined as visible urethral discharge and/or >/=5 polymorphonuclear neutrop
58 ic in Seattle, Washington, with NGU (visible urethral discharge or >/=5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes
59 have been recommended for the collection of urethral discharge to diagnose N. gonorrhoeae and Chlamy
60 nfection characterized by a painful purulent urethral discharge, while in women, the infection is oft
61 ted cases of complete anterior and posterior urethral disruption primary realignment by a combined an
62 sonance imaging are now widely available and urethral diverticula that previously were unrecognized,
63 tion, investigation and management of female urethral diverticulum, a condition often overlooked and
64 bed; both separately and in association with urethral diverticulum.
65 ogenic bladder, radiation injury, and marked urethral dysfunction) or to facilitate catheterization.
66 maturation and cell cycle progression in the urethral endoderm and in the surface ectoderm.
67 oothened in the genital ectoderm and cloacal/urethral endoderm shows that the ectoderm is a direct ta
68 vical epithelial cells (End/E6E7) but not in urethral epithelial cells (THUECs).
69 The interactions of this mutant with male urethral epithelial cells (uec) were examined.
70 Infection of human urethral epithelial cells (UECs) with Neisseria gonorrho
71 oeae strain 1291 formed a biofilm on primary urethral epithelial cells and cervical cells in culture
72 in order for organisms to bind to and enter urethral epithelial cells during infection in men.
73 Likewise, the immortalized urethral epithelial cells produced higher levels of IL-6
74 aintenance of the GT signaling center distal urethral epithelium (dUE).
75 helial populations: the endodermally derived urethral epithelium and the ectodermally derived surface
76 ound that Sprouty genes are expressed by the urethral epithelium during embryogenesis, and that they
77 e genital tubercle, the endodermally derived urethral epithelium functions as an organizer and expres
78 on arrests prematurely and maturation of the urethral epithelium is disrupted.
79 s suggested that Fkbp52 mutants had a normal urethral epithelium signaling center and epithelial diff
80 of the genital tubercle is maintained by the urethral epithelium, and it has been reported that Fgf8
81 spadias and inhibits maturation of a complex urethral epithelium, whereas loss of ectodermal Fgfr2 re
82 we found no redundant Fgf expression in the urethral epithelium, which contrasts with the situation
83 eveloping penis that undergoes fusion of the urethral epithelium.
84 conditionally removed Fgf8 from the cloacal/urethral epithelium.
85 Serious complications such as urethral erosion occur rarely.
86 e reporting receptive oral sex as their only urethral exposure (P = 0.04), by number of sex partners
87 tA, lgtC, and lgtD from diagnostic slides of urethral exudates and sequenced their polyG tracts.
88 On Gram stain of urethral exudates, Nm can be misidentified as the more c
89 -site testing (using pharyngeal, rectal, and urethral/first-void urine samples) for Neisseria gonorrh
90 Conversely, urethral flow at high bladder volumes, excites the bladd
91 Below this threshold urethral flow evoked tonic EUS activity, indicative of t
92 uarding reflex, that was proportional to the urethral flow rate.
93 ependently by controlling bladder volume and urethral flow.
94 the pudendal sensory activity in response to urethral flow.
95 ctivity in response to arbitrary profiles of urethral flows.
96 testing simultaneously assesses bladder and urethral function during bladder filling and emptying to
97 y, including prior antiincontinence surgery, urethral function or obstruction or both, and the presen
98 the use of ancillary investigations such as urethral function tests as well as better understanding
99 e incontinence, which serves as a measure of urethral function; and (5) pressure flow studies, which
100 clinic location in a ZIP code area with male urethral GC infection rates in the top quartile of Washi
101 Urethral, glans penis/coronal sulcus, penile shaft/prepu
102 ymorphonuclear cells per high-power field on urethral Gram stain.
103 he outcome of these procedures in women with urethral hypermobility and genuine stress incontinence s
104 n between intrinsic sphincter deficiency and urethral hypermobility, assessing symptom severity and p
105 h the condition, a positive stress test, and urethral hypermobility.
106 e had additional prostatic smooth muscle and urethral hyperplasia.
107 a is the source for the urine strain ("fecal-urethral" hypothesis), and whether pathogenesis is drive
108 We show that propagation of Ca(2+) waves in urethral ICC is critically dependent upon Ca(2+) influx
109 ocalised Ca(2+) events for the first time in urethral ICC; these were due to Ca(2+) release from the
110 doxycycline for the treatment of symptomatic urethral infection in men.
111 he pathological and immunologic responses to urethral infection of the male guinea pig with Chlamydia
112 found that the 50% infectious dose for male urethral infection was 78 inclusion-forming units.
113 f specimens obtained from male subjects with urethral infections.
114 thritis should undergo evaluation to confirm urethral inflammation and etiologic cause.
115 Urethral inflammation was associated with higher sensiti
116 of clinical findings (age, endocervical and urethral inflammation, menses, and gonococcal coinfectio
117 Of these 48, 71% responded to urethral infusion, 81% responded to colon distension, 10
118 Reports of female urethral injuries are scarce, however, and subsequently
119 minimize short and long-term sequelae of all urethral injuries will ensure optimal results.
120 ndardized algorithm for management of female urethral injuries would be helpful.
121 mal management of each of the vast arrays of urethral injuries.
122 y or contusion, and epididymal, scrotal, and urethral injuries.
123 ing has facilitated the earlier diagnosis of urethral injury and ensured that serious long-term seque
124 or outcomes such as urinary tract infection, urethral injury and quality of life.
125 provide a concise account of the patterns of urethral injury and the current trends of its immediate
126 ct trauma needs to recognize the patterns of urethral injury, especially those associated with certai
127 c fractures associated with a higher risk of urethral injury.
128 Risk factors for urethral involvement/recurrence can be determined before
129 oing RTS has shown an increase in membranous urethral length and elevation of the external urethral s
130 k preservation, bladder neck reconstruction, urethral length preservation, periurethral suspension st
131 sphincteric mechanisms at rest constrict the urethral lumen and keep urethral closure pressure higher
132 l monitoring the chemical composition of the urethral luminal microenvironment for potential hazardou
133 sessment of the risk of cancer at the apical urethral margin and the risk of a second primary tumor o
134 Considering the anatomical location of the urethral meatus, it is surprising that urine is normally
135 ic shape of the urine stream as it exits the urethral meatus.
136 er (EUS) EMG and expulsion of urine from the urethral meatus.
137 e EUS to perineal skin, genital, rectal, and urethral mechanical stimulation, as well as to determine
138 urethra comprised of smooth muscle and peri-urethral mesenchyme.
139 pared to mLPP after SCI+PNT, suggesting that urethral mucosal seal coaptation and tissue elasticity a
140 x (latency=8.9+/-1.1 ms) contractions of the urethral muscle, whereas stimulation of the perineal pat
141 These data support the idea that human urethral myocytes possess currents with electrophysiolog
142 ienced cefixime treatment failure, involving urethral (n = 4), pharyngeal (n = 2), and rectal (n = 3)
143 We analyzed 265 urethral Neisseria gonorrhoeae specimens collected from
144 whereas a smaller proportion (53%) of distal urethral neurons exhibited TTX-resistant spikes.
145 omprise a smaller proportion (51%) of distal urethral neurons that send axons through the pudendal ne
146 , the majority (70%) of bladder and proximal urethral neurons were sensitive to capsaicin and exhibit
147 Ca2+ currents were observed in 47% of distal urethral neurons with TTX-sensitive spikes, but not in T
148 but not in TTX-sensitive bladder or proximal urethral neurons.
149 All urethral Nm isolates were nongroupable, ST-11 clonal com
150 Urethral Nm isolates were similar by fine typing (PorA P
151 d interstitial fibrosis following unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO).
152 is, and inflammation in mice with unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO).
153 The incidence of urethral obstruction and histologic evidence of chronic
154 es also identified that the complications of urethral obstruction are associated with mortality in ma
155 t of complications, such as the treatment of urethral obstruction with transvaginal sling incision.
156 oaded bladder in a rat model of experimental urethral obstruction.
157 In addition, the urethral or cervical swabs from the symptomatic subjects
158 For approach 3, duplicate male urethral or cervical swabs were tested by SDA or by both
159 Activation of urethral or genital afferents of the pudendal nerve can
160 We enrolled 66 men who underwent either urethral or meatal swabbing and compared the cellular co
161 514 men) received a TV NAAT on endocervical, urethral, or urine specimens.
162 spadias - ectopic ventral positioning of the urethral orifice; and hypoplastic genitalia.
163 ved with UP, which suggests that it is not a urethral pathogen.
164 nd Chlamydia trachomatis are well-documented urethral pathogens, and the literature supporting Mycopl
165 There is a significant association between urethral PFV and continence status.
166 the urethral tube involves septation of the urethral plate by continued growth of the urorectal sept
167 Instead, urethral plate cells persist to the ventral margin of th
168 Urethral plate elevation from the corpora has previously
169 ined loss of Fgf8 and Bmp7 expression in the urethral plate epithelium, as well as the ectopic expres
170 or normal expression of Fgf8 and Bmp7 in the urethral plate epithelium.
171 ere hypospadias in mice, in which the entire urethral plate is open along the ventral side of the pen
172 tion of androgen signaling revealed that the urethral plate of flutamide-treated males does not under
173 abdominal leak point pressure measurement or urethral pressure profilometry can accurately predict wh
174 d on either abdominal leak point pressure or urethral pressure profilometry will influence the choice
175 (focusing on leak point pressure testing and urethral pressure profilometry) prior to surgical treatm
176 priate detrusor activity during filling; (3) urethral pressure profilometry, to gauge urethral closin
177 Complex urethral problems can occur as a result of injury, disea
178 Patients then underwent urethral reconstruction with the tissue-engineered tubul
179 ras can be used in patients who need complex urethral reconstruction.
180 g patients' own cells in patients who needed urethral reconstruction.
181 The risk of urethral recurrence may in fact be lower after orthotopi
182 Urethral recurrence, although uncommon, continues to hav
183 The success rate for urethral repair ranges from 89 to 100%, but unless an an
184 A single trans-urethral resection of the prostate specimen examined har
185 uantify the contribution of these factors to urethral resistance, a measure of continence.
186 The urethral rhabdosphincter (URS), commonly known as the ex
187 Striated muscle fibres in the urethral rhabdosphincter are innervated by Onuf's nuclei
188 The NA-induced increase in excitability of urethral rhabdosphincter motoneurons could be a key mech
189 d likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone.
190 visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone.
191 ons that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone.
192 oHD5 by neutrophil proteases and analysis of urethral secretions by surface-enhanced laser desorption
193 roduction of IgG and IgA antibodies in local urethral secretions developed following infection, and l
194 Here, we determined defensin profiles in urethral secretions of healthy men and men with Chlamydi
195 are integrated to switch reflex responses to urethral sensory feedback from maintaining continence to
196 Despite the key role urethral sensory feedback plays in regulation of the low
197 Despite the key role urethral sensory information plays in the lower urinary
198 tle information about the characteristics of urethral sensory responses to physiological stimuli, and
199 Urethral signaling regions, as indicated by Shh and Fgf8
200 ry retention in a future pregnancy after mid-urethral sling (MUS) is small.
201 nence procedures of both traditional and mid-urethral slings and retropubic urethropexies, and for ma
202 Mid-urethral slings appear to be as efficacious as more esta
203 FCU, urethral smears, and swabs were collected from men seen
204 Tonic contractions are seen in the urethral smooth muscles, and phasic contractions occur i
205 It was first isolated from urethral specimens in individuals with non-gonococcal ur
206 eflexes relax the bladder and evoke external urethral sphincter (EUS) contraction (guarding reflex) t
207 absence of bladder contractions and external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyographic (EMG) activat
208 External urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) was typi
209 the changes in bladder pressure and external urethral sphincter (EUS) electroneurogram (ENG) evoked b
210 accompanied by rhythmic bursting of external urethral sphincter (EUS) EMG and expulsion of urine from
211 The external urethral sphincter (EUS) plays a crucial role in maintai
212 irmed electrophysiologically by the measured urethral sphincter activity evoked in response to select
213 ells (MPC) injected into a model of striated urethral sphincter injury that reproduces the histopatho
214 muscle precursor cells (MPCs) into striated urethral sphincter irreversibly damaged by electrocoagul
215 The striated urethral sphincter of older male rats was damaged by ele
216 in young women, associated with a failure of urethral sphincter relaxation, and a treatment option th
217 lts from chronic denervation of the striated urethral sphincter with associated fibrosis.
218 incter (URS), commonly known as the external urethral sphincter, facilitates urinary continence by co
219 rethral length and elevation of the external urethral sphincter, whereas a recent large series demons
220 ve) that inserted directly into the external urethral sphincter.
221 traction of the pelvic floor and the anal or urethral sphincter.
222 The action of the vesical neck and urethral sphincteric mechanisms at rest constrict the ur
223 Aggressive electrocautery resection with urethral stent placement and anastomotic urethroplasty a
224 ue in-growth or stricture is similar between urethral stent placement and anastomotic urethroplasty,
225 Urethral stenting is also an option; however, this is as
226 Urethral stents and anastomotic urethroplasty have been
227 Previous enthusiasm for permanent urethral stents has been dissipated by long-term results
228 In an attempt to avoid permanent urethral stents, new adjunctive agents are being used in
229 ract, the relationship between physiological urethral stimuli, such as fluid flow, and the neural sen
230 hould be considered in men with a history of urethral stone surgery and symptoms, including painless
231 ss scrotal swelling after cystolithotomy and urethral stone surgery.
232 sed significantly after PNT, indicating that urethral striated muscles contribute significantly to co
233 Urethral stricture disease is poorly understood in prost
234 options exist for the management of anterior urethral stricture disease.
235 ound of the prostate also carry high risk of urethral stricture formation, particularly in the salvag
236 iation or ablative therapies are at risk for urethral stricture formation.
237 al dilatation and DVIU remain widely used in urethral stricture management but high-level comparative
238 g morbidities are often at increased risk of urethral stricture recurrence brought upon in-part by de
239 turia, accidental removal, urine leakage, or urethral stricture was then pooled using random-effects
240 including rectal complications (3.3% vs 0%), urethral strictures (17.8% vs 9.5%), and total urinary i
241 We review the cause and incidence of urethral strictures (excluding bladder neck contracture)
242 in a small series as treatment for posterior urethral strictures and bladder neck contractures result
243 l imaging modality used in the evaluation of urethral strictures and fistulas in case of 'watering ca
244 ethrotomy or dilatation in the management of urethral strictures as first-line therapy in selected pa
245 ous complications were also noted, including urethral strictures, which occurred in 3.4% (CI, 1.0% to
246 treatment is best for primary and recurrent urethral strictures.
247 inimally invasive options to manage men with urethral strictures.
248 atest evidence on the management of anterior urethral strictures.
249 iteria included prostate or bladder surgery, urethral surgery or stricture, or medical or other neuro
250 scription-mediated amplification (TMA)-based urethral swab and first-void urine screening for T. vagi
251 Urethral swab cultures from men with urethritis were mor
252 onorrhea Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) urethral swab samples and compared the results with matc
253 RNA was isolated from urethral swab specimens and used as a template to amplif
254 One hundred cervical and urethral swab specimens containing C. trachomatis DNA fr
255 f 926 cervical swab, 45 female urine, 6 male urethral swab, and 407 male urine specimens from 1,384 p
256 lure rate significantly higher than that for urethral swabs (45% versus 3%, respectively; P < 0.0001)
257 For the third approach, duplicate urethral swabs and first-catch urine (FCU) samples from
258 was highest for rectal swabs and similar for urethral swabs and urine specimens.
259 Urethral swabs are the samples of choice for point-of-ca
260 se of the high prevalence, we also evaluated urethral swabs from an additional 25 normal female volun
261 of testing methods using urine specimens and urethral swabs were equal; 67% of cases were identified
262 First-void urine specimens and urethral swabs were obtained at enrollment, for Trichomo
263 included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-coll
264 As an alternative to urethral swabs, meatal swabs have been recommended for t
265 fewer collected epithelial cells compared to urethral swabs, the adequacy of meatal swab specimens to
266 and PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in urethral swabs, urine, and semen for T. vaginalis detect
267 etected in the genital tract, seminal fluid, urethral swabs, urine, and vaginal wash samples of HIV-n
268 on methods, such as female cervical and male urethral swabs.
269 was compared to isolation using cervical and urethral swabs.
270 as the preferred specimen source compared to urethral swabs.
271 Clinical cure (<5 PMNs/HPF with or without urethral symptoms and absence of discharge) and microbio
272 At the STI clinic, urethral symptoms attributable to trichomoniasis were mo
273 Loosely applied mid-urethral synthetic slings are becoming the treatment of
274 CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been
275 macrophage and neutrophil density following urethral tissue analyses.
276 The management of urethral trauma remains controversial.
277 Urethral trauma secondary to penetrating gunshot wounds
278 s a direct target of Shh and is required for urethral tube closure, highlighting a novel role for gen
279 al genital phase, during which Shh regulates urethral tube closure.
280 ernal genitalia that results from failure of urethral tube closure.
281 Hypospadias is a urethral tube defect defined by mislocalized, oversized,
282 In males, formation of the urethral tube involves septation of the urethral plate b
283 tion is required for maintenance of a closed urethral tube.
284 Incomplete urethral tubularization (hypospadias) and anorectal abno
285 These results demonstrate that urethral tubulogenesis, prepuce morphogenesis, and sexua
286 Anterior urethral valve (AUV) is a rare but a well-known congenit
287 cal congenital anomalies, with the posterior urethral valve (PUV) being the most prevalent one.
288 Congenital anterior urethral valve is an uncommon but important cause of inf
289 On cysto-urethroscopy the anterior urethral valve was confirmed and fulguration was done.
290 urinary tract dysfunction included posterior urethral valves (n=13), prune belly syndrome (n=4), meni
291 Posterior urethral valves are associated with considerable mortali
292 Urethral valves are infravesical congenital anomalies, w
293 bladder dysfunction as well as on posterior urethral valves.
294 ses to quantify changes in prostatic volume, urethral volume, and genitourinary vascularization over
295 imaging to quantify changes in prostatic and urethral volumes over time.
296 etic seal, and the connective tissues in the urethral wall also aid coaptation.
297 s associated with a dyssynergia in which the urethral walls contract at the same time as the detrusor
298 In one patient, the urethral warmer could not be inserted and the procedure
299 A urethral warmer was inserted.
300 onally, there is a need for basic studies of urethral wound healing to provide a better understanding
WebLSDに未収録の専門用語（用法）は "新規対訳" から投稿できます。